WA105 experiment - ProtoDUNE-DP
In order to gain experience in building and operating large-scale LAr detectors, an R&D programme is currently underway at CERN. Such programme operates two prototypes with the specific aim of testing the prototypes design, assembly, and installation procedures; the detectors operations; as well as data acquisition, storage, processing, and analysis under beam conditions and with cosmic ray data. The two prototypes both employ LAr TPCs as detection technology, with one prototype only using liquid argon, called ProtoDUNE Single-Phase, and the other using argon in both its gaseous and liquid state, thus the name ProtoDUNE Dual-Phase (DP). Both detectors have similar sizes.
In particular, ProtoDUNE-DP has an active volume of 6×6×6 m3 and an active mass of 300 t. In ProtoDUNE-DP the charge charge is extracted, amplified, and detected in gaseous argon above the liquid surface allowing a finer readout pitch, a lower energy threshold, and better pattern reconstruction of the events.
The light signal is used as trigger for non-beam events, timing for both beam and non-beam events, cosmic background rejection, and there is also a possibility to perform calorimetric measurements and particle identification. The Photon Detection System of ProtoDUNE-DP is formed by 36 8-inch cryogenic photomultipliers (PMTs) placed at the bottom of the detector. As wavelength-shifter, tetraphenyl butadiene (TPB) is coated directly on the PMTs. Each photomultiplier has a voltage divider base soldered to it. In addition, a light calibration system checks the optimum operation of the PMTs, and an external DAQ system records the light signal.
(Left) Internal view of the protoDUNE-DP cryostat during the field cage installation at the EHN1 area at CERN. (Right) Drawing of the ProtoDUNE-DP detector with 36 PMTs placed at the bottom.
Following a staged approach, prior to the ProtoDUNE-DP construction, the WA105-3×1×1 m3 dual phase LAr TPC demonstrator was assembled at CERN. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, large area dual phase charge readout system in several square meter scale, and accessible cold front-end electronics. Five PMTs coated with the wavelength shifter, TPB, are fixed under the cathode. They are sensitive to the 128 nm scintillation light from the argon scintillation and provide the reference time for the drift as well as the trigger. The detector took cosmic ray data during 2017, and the results are being analysed. A publication is in preparation.
(Left) Diagram of the WA105-3×1×1 m3 dual phase LAr TPC demonstrator. (Center) The WA105-3×1×1 m3 prototype being installed. (Right) PMTs installed at the bottom of the WA105-3×1×1 m3 cryostat.We also work on R&D for large scale cryogenic liquid detectors, participating in the AIDA-2020 European Project (Advanced European Infrastructures for Detectors and Accelerators), funded by the Horizon 2020 European Programme. The outcome of this work can be found here.
CIEMAT contributions to WA105
CIEMAT, together with IFAE, is responsible for the light detection system of the ProtoDUNE-DP experiment, including the acquisition and characterization of 40 8” cryogenic photomultipliers, coating with wavelength-shifters, design and production of the voltage circuit and HV splitters, production of the associated mechanics, PMT calibration system, and final installation and commissioning of the light detection system in the detector. CIEMAT also contributes to the development of the simulation and reconstruction software for both charge and light readout and the study of the detector performance for low energy interactions. The group is participating in the analysis of data from cosmic muons taken with the WA105-3×1×1 m3 demonstrator and in simulations of the ProtoDUNE-DP light signal.
A cryogenic test facility has been developed at CIEMAT where 40 PMTs have been characterized at room and LN2 temperature inside a 300 litre vessel, including final mechanical structures, HV dividers and cables (picture). The dark current and gain as a function of the applied voltage are measured for each PMT. The response of the PMTs with respect to the amount and frequency of the light received is also studied. The results of the PMT validation are summarized in this paper published in JINST: ArXiv: 1806.04571.
A PMT calibration system integrated in ProtoDUNE-DP detector has been designed to calibrate the response of the PMTs installed inside the LAr volume. The goal is to determine the PMT gain and study the PMT stability. An optical fiber will be installed at each PMT in order to provide a configurable amount of light from a LED source. All the components of the system have been tested at room and cryogenic temperatures. Dedicated measurements of the complete system have been performed. More details on the system and the validation results can be found in this paper published in JINST: ArXiv: 1902.07127.
The CIEMAT group has important responsibilities inside the WA105 experiment as leaders of the Photon Detection subgroup and members of the Technical Coordination Group and Dissemination Board.
ProtoDUNE-DP Photon Detection System Installation
The photon detection system of ProtoDUNE-DP, including a dedicated fiber calibration system, was installed in winter 2019 at CERN. Before, in summer 2018, the PMT windows were coated with TPB using the CERN Thin Film Facility.
The installation of the photon detection system in ProtoDUNE-DP started in February 2019. The 36 PMTs, previously characterized and coated, were installed on the membrane floor. A flotation test with one PMT immersed in liquid argon was carried out before the installation. As expected, the weight of the PMT stainless steel supporting base and of the PMT itself overwhelms the buoyancy force of the system.
First, the 36 PMT supporting bases were placed in their positions, centering them inside the squares of the membrane floor. Then, the HV-signal cables of the PMTs were routed along the detector walls and floor. Finally, the PMTs were mounted on their holders and their base cables were connected to the cables previously routed.
The system is ready to take data!
Light calibation system installation
The photon calibration system of ProtoDUNE-DP was installed in the detector onces the PMT installation was completed. This system is essential to have an equalized PMT response that allows to use the same threshold definition for all PMT groups, simplifying the determination of the trigger efficiency.
The inner fibers and bundles were routed along the cable trays and pipes. Each fiber was inspected with a microscope and cleaned before connecting it. The uniform response of the fibers was confirmed measuring the power output of all the fibers illuminating them with a LED.