CMS Upgrade

The upgrade program of the CMS detector is being designed to accomodate to the LHC plans for increasing its luminosity from its nominal design value of 1034 cm-2 s-1 to up to a factor 10, which implies the redesign and replacement of certain parts of the detector. A first upgrade program, so called Phase 1 in CMS, was built to cope with up to a factor 2 increase of instantaneous luminosity by 2016 and a Phase 2 upgrade program that should cope with up to a factor 10 integrated luminosity (3000 fb-1) and factors 5 to 10 instantaneous luminosity by 2023.

The CIEMAT group has been involved in the upgrade activities of the CMS DT project since the very beggining. We have had important responsibilites during the Phase 1 Upgrade (DT Upgrade coordinator) and have lead the upgrade program from its conception until now, when it is close to finalization.

The DT Phase 1 upgrade program consisted in the Sector Collector relocation during 2013-2014 with the extraction of the second level of electronics from the cavern into the counting room, and the corresponding copper to optical converters. This task was followed by the installation of new second level of trigger (TwinMux) and readout electronics (uROS) as part of the Phase 1 Upgrade.

The mid term future of LHC includes a major upgrade around 2020 which will increase its integrated luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of 10 beyond the original design value. This will require a redesign and replacement of certain parts of the detector. In particular in the DT chambers a significant portion of the readout and trigger electronics will be substituted. Our group is currently involved in the R&D of these detector upgrade activities. 

More information about the electronics designed by our group can be found in the CIEMAT DT electronics web page



  • HL-LHC CMS DT Upgrade (Phase 2)
  • TwinMux and uROS. CMS Phase 1 Upgrade
  • DT Sector Collector Relocation

The use of DT technology in the CMS barrel has been possible due to the low hit rate and the relatively small strength of the local magnetic field. By the time of the HL-LHC start-up, the DT system will be more than 20 years old and will need to operate for other 10 years integrating ∼10 times luminosity more than it was designed for.


The goal of the DT upgrade is to maintain the present system performance, trigger and reconstruction, at the HL-LHC background rates (instant and integrated) and under the HL-LHC CMS Trigger/DAQ conditions (750 kHz L1 trigger rate and 12.5 μs L1 trigger latency).


The present DT detectors will stay for HL-LHC operation. However, preliminary studies show that they may suffer detector ageing over the lifetime of HL-LHC. An extensive R&D upgrade program is underway to mitigate the potential ageing-associated problems. The results of ageing studies and the discussion of possible mitigation measures are presented in the Phase 2 Muon TDR.


The rate of failures of DT on-detector electronics, the so-called Minicrates (MiC), is projected to be unsustainably high at HL-LHC and the new HL-LHC CMS Trigger/DAQ requirements exceed the present MiC capabilities. Therefore, all MiC will be replaced together with the associated back-end electronics. 


Image of a DT chamber at the GIF++ (Gamma Irradiation Facility).